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When the role of CO2 was investigated in the absence of gas-phase oxidant, using a temporal analysis of products (TAP) reactor, it was found that CO2 dissociates over the reduced catalyst, leading to formation of CO and selective oxygen species.It is proposed that CO2 has the dual role of regenerating selective oxygen species and shifting the equilibrium for alkane dehydrogenation by consuming H2 through the reverse water-gas-shift reaction.Results showed that the electrode utilization could be increased when using a binary mixture of differing particle sizes. developed a theoretical framework describing the kinetics of multiple charged species.The model results suggested controlling the transport paths to the back of the positive porous electrode, maximizing the surface area for intercalating lithium ions, and carefully controlling the spatial distribution and particle size of active materials could improve the battery performance. found from numerical simulations that electrodes with functionally graded porosity and particle size distribution could enhance the usable energy capacity of the battery.Selecting a lithium-ion battery for a certain application depends mainly on the chemistry of cathode and other physical factors involved in the fabrication of cells, e.g.density of the material, composition and solid particle size in electrodes, and the cell geometry.
They found a battery of thicker electrodes had relatively higher internal resistance, which could result in a lower power output and an earlier stop of discharge (particularly high rate discharge) due to the longer diffusion distance and more serious concentration polarization.A better understanding of the cell design and operational parameters on its overall performance can provide guidelines and benchmarks for tailoring battery design and constituting optimized management strategy for various application circumstances.Though a great amount of work has been done, there is still a lack of general and systematical analysis on the mechanisms of transport-related performance limitations of Li-ion batteries during charge/discharge operations.A detailed electrochemistry model coupled with an optimization algorithm was developed to examine the effects of cycling rate and cathode solid particle size, species diffusivity, and electronic conductivity on the specific energy and specific power of battery.It was found from simulation results that the available energy decreased with a faster cycling rate, larger active material particle size, and lower species diffusivity. found from experiments and simulations that minor solid-phase diffusion limitation effects existed in the carbon electrode and solution-phase diffusion limitations might become notably significant for a cell with an increased electrode thickness or a decreased initial salt concentration (decreased down to 1 mol•L found from numerical simulations that end of high-rate discharges might be caused by near-depletion of lithium species at negative electrode solid active material surfaces, full saturation of lithium at positive electrode solid active material surfaces, or local Li-ion depletion in the electrolyte. investigated the cell performance and the mechanisms limiting cell performance during fast-charge operations at moderate and extreme operation temperatures by an electrochemical-thermal coupling model.
To elucidate the relevant mechanisms, two groups of characteristic parameters were proposed.